Cannabinoid Testing

EVIO quantifies up to 17 cannabinoids. Learn more about them below.

EVIO Labs is the nation’s most trusted provider for cannabis potency testing – leading the industry in methodologies and exceeding mandated standards in applicable states. We use Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) that goes beyond testing the level of THC and provides detailed profiling of all major cannabinoids.  Some of our labs also profile minor cannabinoids such as CBL and CGNA. All EVIO Labs ensure that the test results are accurate with regular third party proficiency tests, and frequent inter-lab testing.

  • Δ9-THC
  • THCA
  • CBD
  • CBDA
  • Δ8-THC
  • CBG
  • CBGA
  • THCV
  • CBN
  • CBNA
  • CBC
  • CBCA
  • CBL
  • CBLA
  • CBDV

  • THCA - Tetrahydrocannabinol is the most abundant cannabinoid found in high-THC cannabis strains. THCa is found in raw and live/fresh cannabis but is progressively decarboxylated to THC with drying and heating. Because the conversion from THCa to THC begins immediately after harvest, there are fewer methods of application/ingestion. The popular methods include juicing raw, fresh cannabis and THCa transdermal patches. Preliminary studies suggest THCa has strong anti-inflammatory properties and is especially helpful in managing the severe pain caused by inflammation in Lupus and arthritis patients. Other medical benefits of THCa include neuroprotective, antiemetic (anti-vomiting), and anti-proliferative properties.
  • Δ9-THC Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid THC is the primary chemical responsible for most of the psychoactive effects associated with cannabis. The effects of THC are induced rapidly as the chemical binds to endocannabinoid receptors in the brain, central nervous system and the immune system. delta 9-THC is a Schedule I controlled substance in the USA. The only legal medical application for marijuana is to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy for cancer patients, some patients have been given THC to reduce the pressure in the eye from glaucoma. An oral dose of 20 mg of delta-9-THC or the smoking of a cigarette containing 2% delta-9-THC produces effects on mood, memory, motor coordination, cognitive ability, sensorium, time sense, and self-perception. Most commonly there is an increased sense of well-being or euphoria, accompanied by feelings of relaxation and sleepiness when subjects are alone; where users can interact, sleepiness is less pronounced and there is often spontaneous laughter. Short-term memory is impaired, and there is a deterioration in capacity to carry out tasks requiring multiple mental steps to reach a specific goal. High doses of delta 9-THC can induce frank hallucinations, delusions, and paranoid feelings. Thinking becomes confused and disorganized; depersonalization and altered time sense are accentuated. Anxiety reaching panic proportions may replace euphoria. With high enough doses, the clinical picture is that of a toxic psychosis with hallucinations, depersonalization, and loss of insight. Clinical manifestations due to marijuana smoking have included long-term impairment of memory in adolescents, a sixfold increase in the incidence of schizophrenia, cancer of the mouth, jaw, tongue, and lungs in 19- to 30-year olds, fetotoxicity, and nonlymphoblastic leukemia in children of marijuana-smoking mothers. In addition to its psychoactive effects, cannabis provides a variety of physical health benefits. THC can be used to treat certain ailments, cancers, and diseases. THC may aid in treating: PTSD – Alleviates PTSD-related symptoms such as flashbacks, agitation and nightmares, Asthma – Can help calm asthma attacks (although no inhalers exist yet), Glaucoma – Relieves eye pressure, Cancer and tumors – Inhibits cell growth, HIV/AIDS – Aids with treatment symptoms like nausea, loss of appetite and pain, Hepatitis C – Aids with treatment symptoms like fatigue, nausea, muscle aches, loss of appetite, and depression, Anorexia – Increases appetite, Epilepsy / MS / Seizures – Suppresses muscle spasms, Arthritis – Anti-inflammatory, Alzheimers – Slows progression of disease, blocks the enzyme that creates amyloid plaques, Crohns/Ulcerative colitis/IBS – Prevents intestinal permeability, reduces flow of bacteria, Parkinsons – Reduces pain & tremors, aids in sleep, Stroke – Protects brain from damage by reducing size of affected area, Concussion – Lessens bruising of the brain, Dependency & Withdrawal - Combats withdrawal from dependency on benzodiazepines, opiates and alcohol, ADD/ADHD – Increases the availability of dopamine, the mental slowdown = concentration.
  • CBD Cannabidiol CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid with a wide scope of medical applications. Of the 85 known cannabinoids. CBD is "activated" from the dcarboxolation of CBDa CBD and THC are usually present in the highest concentrations, and are therefore the most widely studied. The ratios of THC and CBD vary among strains and crops. The combination of medical efficacy without the accompanying psychoactivity associated with THC makes CBD ideal for treating children, the elderly, and those who want to remain clear headed. Several studies suggest that CBD actually counters the ‘high’ caused by THC. CBD can help moderate some of the negative effects of THC (paranoia, accelerated heartbeat, and short-term memory loss) while bolstering its medical benefits. "CBD is a calming phytochemical that does not cause a psychotropic experience.One of CBD’s most proven medical applications has been in the treatment of epilepsy/MS/Dravet syndrome. Animal research has suggested that CBD can act as an anti-convulsant without the further exacerbating seizures. Anecdotal evidence has shown CBD to have the same strong anti-epeleptic effects in humans. The most common treatment method for those suffering from extreme seizures is ingesting high-CBD cannabis oil concentrate in capsules. CBD’s antipsychotic properties are currently being studied as an alternative treatment for schizophrenia, psychosis, and anxiety.
  • CBDa Cannabidiol acid (CBDa) is the precursor to CBD, and exists in growing plants. It isn’t until the plant is cut, dried, and heated that CBD is formed. Preliminary research suggests that CBDA may be helpful in four distinct therapeutic areas. These include: inflammation, CBDA is a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Nausua reduction: A 2012 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology has found that CBDA treatment reduces nausea behaviors in rodents. The study also found that the cannabinoid reduced vomiting in shrews. Researchers found that CBDA was actually more powerful in quieting an upset stomach than CBD. CBDA treatment has been shown to prevent the migration of breast cancer cells in animals. Treatment with raw CBDA altered the expression of genes associated with invasive breast cancer metastasis. The cannabinoid also down-regulated the enzyme COX-2, which can amplify breast cancer migration. GW Pharma has a patent on CBDA for the potential treatment of psychotic disorders.
  • Δ8-THC Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB1, which inhibits adenyl cyclase, increases mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, modulates several potassium channel conductances and inhibits N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol is an analogue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with antiemetic, anxiolytic, appetite-stimulating, analgesic, and neuroprotective properties. Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC) binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB1, located in the central nervous system; CB1 receptor activation inhibits adenyl cyclase, increases mitogen-activated protein kinase activities, modulates several potassium channel conductances and inhibits N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. This agent exhibits a lower psychotropic potency than delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (PubMed)
  • CBN Cannabinol is formed when THC is exposed to oxygen and UV light/heat. It is not usually found in high concentrations in properly stored cannabis. For those seeking more CBN, expose cannabis in a cool (+/-70 degree) environment for a prolonged period – the THC will degrade to CBN. CBN is a very weak psychoactive cannabinoid, and found more often in indica strains. CBN is considered to be the strongest sedative of the known cannabinoids. Its sedative effects are so powerful that cannabis with concentrations of CBN approaching 1% by weight can be useful in treating insomnia. For sleep inducement, CBN is synergistic with CBD and THC in the correct ratios. CBN has been observed to result in greater sedation when combined with THC, and may also have anticonvulsant (anti-seizure), anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic properties.Studies show that CBN reduces the intraocular pressure associated with Glaucoma, making it a viable alternative for those seeking relief without the psychoactive effects of THC. CBN also offers pain relief for those who want to remain clear headed. The most common concentrated CBN applications include transdermal patches, topical gels, and oral capsules. Cannabis flowers and concentrates with high (1%) concentrations of CBN can also be smoked or vaporized.
  • CBG Cannabigerol is thought to be particularly effective in treating glaucoma because it reduces intraocular pressure. It is a powerful vasodilator and has neuroprotective effects. In animal studies CBG was found to be effective in decreasing the inflammation characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease. CBG was also shown to protect neurons in mice with Huntington’s disease, which is characterized by nerve cell degeneration in the brain.CBG was shown to block receptors that cause cancer cell growth. In one study, it was shown to inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells in mice, slowing colon cancer growth. CBG inhibited tumors and chemically-induced colon carcinogenesis. A medicinal strain called Bediol is producedby Bedrocan BV Medicinal Cannabis.
  • CBGa Cannabigerol Acid is the precursor to the three main cannabinoid lines: tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA).
  • CBC Cannabichromene "CBC is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in trace amounts in cannabis. CBC has the same chemical formula and weight at THC and CBD, but differs in the arrangement of its atoms. " CBC is non-intoxicating, because it binds poorly to CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain. CBC does bind with other receptors such as the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), both of which are linked to pain perception. When CBC activates these receptors, increased levels of the body’s natural endocannabinoids like anandamide are released.According to Steep Hill Labs, CBC has been shown to be more effective than CBD in treating anxiety and stress. Preliminary studies suggest that CBC has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In addition, CBC promotes bone growth. CBC is effective on its own and in conjunction with other cannabinoids. Research has found CBC to be the second-most-potent cannabinoid at inhibiting the growth of new cancer cells (CBG was the most potent). Cannabichromene has been shown to block pain and inflammation associated with collagen-induced osteoarthritis. Cannabinoids like CBC act on inflammation differently than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) do, and don’t have the side effects of these medications. In another example of the entourage effect, CBC in combination with THC had significant anti-inflammatory response in a recent animal study; together, the two cannabinoids produced a much greater effect on inflammation than by themselves. CBC has been shown to help with acne, as it has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and also suppressed excessive lipid production in the sebaceous glands. CBC also reduced levels of arachidonic acid (AA), which is needed to create the lipogenesis.
  • CBCa Cannabichromene Acid converts from CBGA into CBCA, and then finally to CBC after exposure to heat or ultraviolet light.
  • CBDV Cannabidivarin is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is found more prevalently in indica strains, specifically landrace indica strains, and strains that are lower in THC. Like CBD, CBDV has been shown to significantly reduces the frequency and severity of seizures. It is also known to reduce nausea associated with several conditions, and helps to reduce inflammation throughout the body. CBDV has been beneficial in the treatment of pain and mood disorders.
  • CBL Cannabicyclol is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid and is a degradative product. Light converts cannabichromene (CC) into CBL. Little is known about this cannabinoid.
  • CBLa Little is known about cannabicyclol acid, as the cannabis plant produces very little of it. It is the most stable of the cannabinoid acids to heat, resistant to decarboxylation. As a result it yields very little CBL on heating.
  • THCV Tetrahydrocannabivarin is the decarboxylated form of THCVA. Preclinical research suggests that THCV may have anti-epileptic qualities with a study concluding that “Δ⁹-THCV exerts antiepileptiform and anticonvulsant propertiesTHCV is an appetite suppressant. THCV may dull the appetite. Along with CBD, the introduction of THCV provided benefits such as reduced blood pressure, blood glucose levels and inflammation markers as well as improved fasting insulin levels and insulin response. THCV may reduce panic attacks. It appears to curb anxiety attacks in PTSD patients without suppressing emotion. THCV may help with Alzheimer’s. Tremors, motor control, and brain lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease appear to be improved by THCV, but research is in progress. THCV promotes the growth of new bone cells, and is being looked at for osteoporosis and other bone-related conditions. (reference Leafly)
  • THCVa Tetrahydrocannabivarin Acid CBGVA is broken down to tetrahydrocannabivarin carboxylic acid (THCVA) by the THCV synthase. At that point, THCVA can be decarboxylated with heat or UV light to create THCV